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Key Concepts addressed

This session will involve

  • Introduction to conduct in an Anatomy Lab
  • Overview of the Human Structure with some terminology
  • Exposure to specimens
  • Discussion/debriefing regarding reactions to the experience

Specific Objectives

  • To be able to identify physical, chemical and biological hazards associated with the use of preserved human cadaveric material.
  • To be aware of the ethical and moral responsibility associated with the study of human cadaveric material.
  • To be able to name the major systems in the human body and indicate briefly the function of each.
  • To be able to identify different tissue types visible to the naked eye in human cadaveric material and indicate the function of each.
  • To be able to describe the anatomical position and indicate why it is a useful concept in gross anatomy.
  • To be able to define the three anatomical planes and indicate the meaning of common descriptive terms in gross anatomy. To understand the concept of anatomical relations in descriptive anatomy.
  • To consider and deal with personal feelings evoked by exposure to human cadavers
  • Basic principles of anatomy. Appropriate behaviour in an anatomy laboratory, and when dealing with human body parts. Reactions to potentially stressful situations in medicine.

Notes

  • See microbiology lab for hazards/safety information
  • Acknowledgement of the gift of the donors of cadavers:
  • Protection of the rights of donors:
  • Responsibilities as a student of anatomy
  • Preservation
    • Cover the cadavers in a wet towel to protect them from desiccation
    • H2O2/formalin used to clean and preserve
    • Embalmed
  • Protection from wear and tear
  • Personal feelings about mortality etc related to exposure to human cadavers.
The anatomical planes of the body
  • Brain:
    • Rostal – toward the nose (front)
    • Caudal – away from the nose (back)
  • Anterior, posterior, superior, inferior.
  • (Dorsal, ventral) = (Posterior, anterior)
  • Planes:
    • Sagittal – slice vertically in a line from back to front (slices into 2 equal halves: right and left)
    • Parasagittal – any plane parallel to the sagittal plane
    • Coronal – cuts body into anterior and posterior
    • Horizontal – cuts body into superior/inferior
    • Transverse – at right angles to the long axis of a structure
      • E.g. transverse loop of small intestine
      • It’s a cross-section
  • Proximal: closer to source
  • Distal: further from source
  • Medial: close to midline
  • Lateral: away from midline
  • All with respect to the anatomical position
  • Superficial: closer to surface
  • Deep: further from surface
  • A fascia is a layer of fibrous tissue that permeates the human body. A fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together. It consists of several layers: a superficial fascia, a deep fascia, and a subserous (or visceral) fascia and extends uninterrupted from the head to the tip of the toes. Fascia is dense connective tissue.
  • Tissue: collection of cells performing a common function
  • Cells
    • Epithelial
      • Protect
      • Absorb (e.g. mucous membranes)
    • Connective
      • Blood
      • Bone
      • Cartilage
      • Fascia
      • Adipose
      • Fibrous
    • Muscle [bring about movement: bone-bone, bone-cartilage or muscle-muscle]
      • Cardiac
        • Striated
        • Rhythmic
        • Intercalated discs
        • Involuntary
      • Smooth
        • Visceral organs
        • Blood vessels
        • Ducts, ureter
        • Involuntary (controlled by internal or external environment)
      • Skeletal
        • Striated
        • Voluntary
    • Nervous [neurons form once; don’t reform if they die. Tumours only come from supporting tissue of the brain (neuron doesn’t duplicate)
      • Somatic
      • Autonomic
      • PNS
      • CNS
  • Cells --> Tissues --> Organs --> Systems --> Organism
  • Systems
    • Integumentary
      • Skin
      • Hair
      • Nails
    • Musculoskeletal
      • Axial and appendicular skeleton
      • Muscles
    • Cardiovascular
      • Blood vessels
      • Heart
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
      • Kidney
      • Urinary bladder
      • Ureters
    • Endocrine
    • Reproductive
      • Male
      • Female
    • Nervous
      • CNS
        • Brain
        • Spinal cord
      • PNS
        • Motor
          • Somatic (voluntary)
            • Arms, legs etc
          • Autonomic (involuntary)
            • Systems e.g. lungs, heart etc
        • Sensory
          • General
            • Pain
            • Touch
            • Pressure
          • Special
            • Vision
            • Hearing
            • Visceroception
            • Proprioception (balance, pressure)
    • Immune
      • In the cardiovascular (lymphatics)
      • In the endocrine