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  • overview of obesity
  • dietary issues
    • fat, postprandial lipemia, green tea, sugar, crash dieting, exercise, alcohol, chocolate
  • healthy eating guidelines (Mediterranean diet)
    • variety
    • balanced diets: grains, fruit, vegetables
    • steps to weight control
    • avoid bad fats (e.g. canola); go for polyunsaturated fats

Kid's obesity in the future

  • Inflection in the 70s ==> now 30% children overweight/obese
    • Future problem: obese teenager can't get rid of fat cells
    • But we need to reduce visceral fat through diet and exercise - but they'll always be prone to becoming overweight

Polyunsaturated fats we eat form the cell membrane

  • Fat cells store fat - most is long-chain fatty acids
    • Except for omega 3 and omega 6 - they go into the cell membranes
  • 85% omega 6 to omega 3 in Australian fat; omega 3 deficient
    • need salmon, herring, flaxseed; must be oily, steamed or grilled. Don't fry it
      • 30% of your diet should be fat, but only the good fats
      • coconut oil is also a good fat - medium sized saturated fat
      • don't eat margarine or butter (only eat coconut butter).
      • Should eat only wholegrain carbohydrate
      • avocado has great fats in it
      • olive oil is a very good fat. Don't cook oils up to smoking - it's carcinogenic.
        • mild stirfry with rice oil or bran oil = ok. But heating too much =
    • capsules are a good idea - fish oil
    • things can't get in/out of cell membrane without fish oil
  • Skinny
    • Exercise
    • Eat good fats
    • Don't eat junk food
    • Green tea blocks the absorption of fat in the small intestine; need to drink proper green tea.

Dietary fat and blood glucose

  • Complex sugar - takes a lot less time to get into blood (Glycemic Index)
    • Simple sugar is bad - high GI
  • When you first have the sugar, you feel better because more glucose/fructose in the brain --> crash due to insulin in future
  • Fat suppresses the sugar
  • Fat half life: 4 hours
  • If you eat sugar and fat together, then you get peaks in sugar 3 hours later
    • BAD FOR DIABETICS - hard to time the insulin doses
    • --> Post-prandial lipemia
  • High fat and high sugar after eating = more risk of heart disease
    • Fasting is not as good as looking at the level when they've eaten the food


Postprandial lipemia and disease

  • Postprandial hyperlipidemia
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes type 2
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Insulin resistance
    • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Postprandial lipemia (fat meal >30g; SFA, fructose > 50g/day; MUFA, n-6 PUFA)
  • n-3 PUFA, dietary fibre, lean read meat, soy protein, casein, whey protein, green tea, polyphenols, olive oil minor components
  • Exercise, weight loss inhibits
  • Shouldn't eat food with more than 3g/100g
    • Weet bix = 3g/100g sugar; so it's good times!
  • Half life of caffeine in humans = 5 hours
    • For a child it's 30 hours
    • There's fructose in fruit juice that mothers give to children


  • 50g sugar significantly elevates triglyceride levels (see later)
  • Fish oils and green tea reduce entry of fat into the blood
  • Also exercising before meal reduces the level of fat in the blood (13-14 hours before you eat the fat). Elevated in vigorous, fast exercise e.g. sprinting
    • Due to lipoprotein lipase - sucking fat from blood into the muscle
      • Lipoprotein lipase lasts in the blood for 18 hours
  • Supplement with green tea and fish oil
    • Green tea blocks fat absorption in the blood
    • Exercise sucks the fat out of the blood = lipoprotein lipase
  • Fructose = from high-fructose corn syrup, very cheap, put it in everything; it's OK in fruit, but in chocolate etc it is too hard to deal with
  • Fructose is an unhealthy sugar, especially when given in fructose corn syrup
  • Glucose level goes up high straight after eating sugar
  • But fructose level doesn't cause glucose level to go so high
    • But fructose bombards the liver with sugar
    • Stores a little bit as glycogen, but converts the rest to fat
      • Hence low fat diets are bad
  • Lipton tea = 6 teaspoons of fructose, and a little amount of flavenoid (an antioxidant). It will produce a large insulin response (due to its glucose), and the rest converted to fat in the blood
  • Fructose = less blood glucose = less insulin. But fructose significantly reduces leptin a large amount (leptin is a major satiety hormone) = so you go on eating (manufacturer's dream). Leptin secreted by fat cells
    • Same with grehlin (from the lining of the stomach). Grehlin makes you hungry
    • Overall: makes you feel hungry, and doesn't tell you you're full
    • Fructose also becomes converted to TG in the blood (unlike glucose)
      • E.g. fruit juice given to children
  • Apples and pears & fruit juice: imbalance in fructose and glucose
    • Fructose can only get out of the small intestine with glucose
    • Fructose in apple >> glucose in apple
    • Fructose overload without glucose = increases colonisation in gut
  • Eliminate fructose from diet --> improve gut problems (colonic bacteria)
    • Fructose intolerance is underestimated
  • NB: Apples are good for most people, only bad in fructose intolerance

Soft drink consumption

  • Soda associated with:
    • greater energy intake and body weight
    • lower milk, calcium, other nutrients
    • increased risk of medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension
  • Coca cola and Mountain dew don't have sugar, but they also destroy tissue

Red meat, CHD, stroke, and diabetes

  • Fish is good, white meat is worse, red meat is the worst. Because big animals are fed a lot of polyunsaturated fats
    • Bad proteins in the red meat, also a lot of fat stored in the muscle fibres and in between the muscle fibres
    • Also the fat is used for cooking
    • Acrylomide in burning sausages = seremide = carcinogen
  • Processed meat is a lot worse
  • Animal protein = more breast cancer, intestinal cancer, male lung cancer
    • Correlation, not cause
  • Plant protein = less breast cancer
  • Red meat = 1ce/week or 1ce/month
    • Replace with fish
    • Have vegetarian

Green tea

  • Blocks fat
  • Turns on the body for burning fat
    • Stops degradation of catecholamines (COMT) - increases fat oxidation
    • Caffeine does similar stuff by increasing SNS and increasing adenosine
  • Black tea > oolong tea > green tea
    • Put it in warm water, don't boil it
    • Cool it down (uses more energy with cold water)
    • Insulin surge when eating sugary stuff around exercise = decreases fat
    • Lower RQ with green tea (less
  • Exercising in in the morning results in more fat loss than later in the day
  • One gram of carb attracts 2.7g of water
    • Water heavy, not true
  • Severe dieting = 1/3 of weight is muscle mass loss
    • 95% of these people then put the weight back on as fat, not muscle
  • Sprinting reduces fat much more than steady state exercise
  • Exercise causes starvation to result in muscle mass loss
  • Reduce calories as Mediterranean diet, and do exercise (muscle mass increases, and visceral fat decreases)

Food pyramid

  • Processed bread is bad
  • Mediterranean diet not as good as the very last one
  • NB: capsaicin is full of fat oxidising chemicals

Medications

  • orlistat (Xenical)
  • acarbose ( p alha-glucosidase enzy ) me
  • white kidney bean extract (alpha-amylase enzyme)
  • beta glucans(soluble fibre) (soluble fibre)
  • metformin
  • statins

OR:

  • green tea
  • exercise
  • Mediterranean diet